Picking up from an earlier post this month post, this week, we’re drilling down into the arguments raised by Century Bank and Trust Company—one of the non-government defendants—as to why the Plaintiffs’ RICO claim against it should be dismissed. Century Bank provides banking services to Healthy Pharms and, according to the Plaintiffs, does so “knowing that [Healthy Pharms] intends to operate a marijuana business.” Plaintiffs bring one count against Century Bank for alleged violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1962(d), which makes it “unlawful for any person to conspire to violate any of the [substantive RICO provisions].” As explained in the prior post, the court left ultimate resolution of the pending motions to dismiss open-ended, granting 30 days’ leave to allow the Plaintiffs to file an amended complaint, based on the fact that Healthy Pharms opened and began operating after Plaintiffs’ original complaint was filed. However, the court also seemed to cast significant doubt as to whether an action could be maintained against Century Bank, as evaluated below.
Century Bank presented multiple arguments as to why Plaintiffs’ complaint should be dismissed, including abstention and failure to allege that Century Bank was involved in a RICO enterprise beyond … Keep reading
After nearly 50 years as a Schedule I federally controlled substance, hemp is set to become a legal crop. If passed, the 2018 omnibus farm bill (which includes the Hemp Farming Act of 2018) will allow cannabidiol (CBD) to be legally sold in all 50 states. While related as members of the Cannabis sativa family, hemp and marijuana have different biological characteristics. Most importantly for federal legislators, hemp contains negligible amounts of the psychoactive constituent tetrahydrocannabinol (THC).
The federal government’s decision to the legalized hemp is part of a longer, more comprehensive process that stretches back four years, when President Obama signed the 2014 farm bill. At Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell’s urging, the 2014 farm bill created a pilot research program that authorized state departments of agriculture and universities to grow and research hemp under limited circumstances. However, due to continued federal prohibition on the crop, there were many restrictions on its cultivation during the pilot period. For example, farmers seeking to participate in the program needed to obtain a waiver from the Drug Enforcement Administration, and the bill also limited the number of acres that farmers could legally plant. The pilot program was a success, … Keep reading
The Ohio Board of Pharmacy declared that over-the-counter sales of cannabidiol (CBD) are illegal, despite the substance’s current widespread availability in grocery, health, and other non-licensed stores across the state.
This means that CBD sales are now only legal in Ohio from state-licensed medical marijuana dispensaries. The problem, however, is that no state medicinal marijuana licenses have yet been issued, even though Ohio approved medical marijuana in 2016, and may not be until 2019, due to the state’s regulatory delays.
“Until dispensaries are operational,” the Board wrote, “no one, including board licensees, may possess or sell CBD oil or other marijuana-related products.” The board issued 56 provisional licenses in June of this year, granting licensees six months to build out their facilities and meet all obligations in state law and rules.
The new guidance means that all products containing CBD must comply with the same rigorous testing procedures and adhere to the same rules as products with real cannabis. Further, any product derived from cannabis must have a “known source,” showing quantities of active ingredients, and CBD must undergo testing in a state-licensed lab. However, no labs that were issued provisional licenses are presently open for business, and … Keep reading
Recently, in a closely watched cannabusiness case, U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts Judge Allison D. Burroughs issued a memorandum and order on motions to dismiss in Crimson Galeria Limited Partnership, et al. v. Healthy Pharms, Inc., et al.  For a bit of background, the Plaintiffs are property owners in Cambridge, Massachusetts’ Harvard Square, whose property either abuts or is located within 200 feet of Healthy Pharms’ now-open registered marijuana dispensary. At the time the Plaintiffs filed suit, Healthy Pharms was not open for business, so the Plaintiffs based their claims on the idea that Healthy Pharms’ disclosure of the potential dispensary hurt their property values and interests.
The Plaintiffs alleged that Healthy Pharms’ potential operation diminished the market value of their properties and hurt development opportunities, in their eyes, the RMD made Harvard Square a less desirable location for prospective buyers or renters who “reasonably worry” about “increased crime” and “pungent odors.” The Plaintiffs asserted claims against the “Government Defendants” for declaratory and injunctive relief, arguing that federal law (i.e., the Controlled Substances Act) preempts Massachusetts’ legalization of medical marijuana dispensaries. This was a clear attempt by the Plaintiffs to create a private right of … Keep reading